FIRST AID BOOKLET

FIRST AID BOOKLET

FIRST AID BOOKLET

EMERGENCY MEASURES

Take the animal to a veterinarian or animal hospital as soon as possible. If the practitioner or facility is some distance away, consult with the veterinarian over the telephone or contact an emergency service such as the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center hotline. Do not make your pet drink milk, oil, or castor oil before talking to a vet or animal poisoncontrol as this could make the condition worse.

Only perform CPR if you have been trained to do so. In the case of an extreme emergency a vet can coach you through this procedure over the phone. If vomiting is recommended, only induce vomiting as instructed by a professional. The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center can be contacted at:

*(888) 426-4435

*Please note that this call incurs a service fee.

PET FIRST AID KIT GUIDE

EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NUMBERS

 ACCIDENTS & FIRST AID

Accidents usually occur suddenly and can happen when least expected. Your pet depends upon you to make the right decisions and to act rapidly.

Above all, try to remain calm when a beloved pet suffers an injury. By taking some basic emergency measures you can prevent further harm or complications. Reading the Pet First Aid Guide will prepare you to act calmly and to make appropriate decisions. Taking a class in pet first aid can also be helpful.

First aid kits are not alternatives to veterinary care. The contents of this guide and our pet first aid kit should be considered as recommendations provided only to help offer basic care for minor medical emergencies.

far from civilization. In these situations a board or some other flat and rigid object can be used for support.

Cats can be transported to the veterinarian wrapped in a towel or blanket, upon a stretcher improvised from a floor mat, or they may be carried in a box or cat carrier. When picking up a cat, hold the head and neck with one hand and the hindquarters with the other hand.

 TRANSPORTING ANIMAL TO THE VETERINARIAN

After emergency measures are taken, you will need to transport the dog to the veterinarian as soon as possible. A blanket may be used as a stretcher. Position the dog on the stretcher with his back towards you. Place a towel or another blanket over the dog for warmth. Place small dogs in a box.

If you suspect internal injuries, broken ribs, or an injury to the spine AVOID MOVING THE ANIMAL UNTIL YOU SPEAK WITH A MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL. Proper stabilization is required to prevent complications, further injury, or death. Professionals will be able to aid you with this over the phone. This will be impractical in some situations, for example when injuries are serious or life-threatening and you are 

Prevention is always the best remedy. Knowing first aid procedures, safeguarding the pets in your home from dangerous household chemicals (insecticides, fertilizers, cosmetics, detergents, medicines, antifreeze, and cleaning supplies), using a leash when outdoors or keeping them fenced in a secure area, and not allowing your pet to chase cars can all help to keep your pet safe.

As with children, each pet is different and has unique traits that can make them more vulnerable to some dangers.

Using common sense to help prevent accidents and learning basic first aid techniques will help you and your pet have a lifetime of fun together that won’t be cut short by an unnecessary accident or injury which could have been prevented or treated more effectively.

VITAL SIGNS

DOGS

– A dog’s usual respiratory rate is 10-30 breaths per minute.
– Normal resting pulse is 70-160 heartbeats per minute.
– A puppy’s normal heartbeat is 220 heartbeats per minute.
– A dog’s normal temperature is 101.5 to 102.5 degrees F.

CATS

– A cat’s normal respiratory rate is 10-30 breaths per minute.
– Normal resting pulse is 110-140 heartbeats per minute.

ONLY ATTEMPT CPR IF YOUR DOG OR CAT IS NOT BREATHING AND IF YOU HAVE BEEN TRAINED TO DO SO OR AS INSTRUCTED BY A PROFESSIONAL.

COMMON DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES

Some common foods dangerous to dogs include chocolate, onions, grapes, raisins, Macadamia nuts, and foods sweetened with Xylitol.


Other dangerous substances include household cleaners, disinfectants, detergents, soaps, mothballs, cosmetics, and certain fertilizers.

NEVER administer human medicine to a pet without first consulting your vet. Some medications are toxic to pets and can cause serious injury or even death. Common symptoms of poisoning include but are not limited to: excessive salvation, repeated vomiting, diarrhea, blood in vomit, stool, or urine, shortness of breath, racing pulse, staggering, convulsions, change in pupil size, and loss of consciousness.

The most common causes of poisoning include:

1. Human prescriptions and over-the-counter
medications
2. Pesticides including rat poison, slug and snail
bait, and agricultural or garden insecticides
3. Misuse of flea and tick products on pets,
especially cats

POISONING

Call your veterinarian immediately! The ASPCA Poison Control Center is also available to help. Have ready the name and amount of poison ingested and be sure to know the approximate weight of your
pet.

DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING UNLESS INSTRUCTED TO DO SO!

Take your pet to the veterinarian as soon as possible.If the veterinarian is some distance away, consult over the telephone with the Poison Control hotline or your veterinarian. Do not make your pet drink milk, oil, or castor oil unless otherwise instructed by the poison control hotline or your veterinarian as thismay make the situation worse.

VETERINARIANS

Make sure your pets have yearly veterinary checkups and vaccinations to maintain good health. Your veterinarian is the best source of information on how to care for your pet’s health. If you do not already have a vet that you like, then you will need to choose a veterinarian for your pets.

Pick a vet who answers your questions with explanations that you can understand. Do not base your decision on the lowest cost and do not assume that a high-priced veterinarian is better. Ask friends and family for referrals to a good vet. Make sure to ask your veterinarian which symptoms require immediate consultation or treatment and what supplies you should have on hand. 

Also, make sure to ask what amount of standard medications you are allowed to give your pet, if any at all, and if these amounts will change with fluctuations in your pet’s weight or as they age. This will help you know what options are available before a problem occurs.

Do not try to remember veterinary advice. This information is easy to forget, especially in an emergency situation. Write down the recommendations from your vet for each of your pets. Keep this information and your pet’s health history in or with your pet first aid kit for future reference along with important phone numbers, such as those for your veterinarian and other emergency numbers.

If bleeding is severe, especially if blood is ejected from the wound in spurts, apply a TOURNIQUET AS A LAST RESORT. Use a strip of gauze to tie a bow ABOVE the bleeding area. DO NOT TIE TOO TIGHT. Loosen the bow every 10 minutes. Remember that the goal is restrict blood flow, not stop it completely.

TAKE YOUR PET TO THE VETERINARIAN IMMEDIATELY!

MINOR WOUNDS

STEP 1: Cleanse the wound with a disinfectant.
STEP 2: Apply an antibiotic ointment to prevent infection.
STEP 3: Place a sterile gauze pad on the wound.
STEP 4: Wrap the area with a roll of stretch gauze.
STEP 5: Secure the wrap with a self-adhesive bandage.

NEVER WRAP TOO TIGHTLY.

If bleeding is heavy and involves a large area, a pressure dressing must be applied.

BLEEDING AND WOUNDS

You can control bleeding by applying direct pressure to the wound with a pressure bandage.

STEP 1: Place sterile gauze pads on the wound.
STEP 2: Wrap the area with stretch gauze.
STEP 3: If the injury affects a paw, use cotton to pack between the toes.
STEP 4: Wrap an adhesive bandage to secure the first layer of bandages.

If the injury affects a paw or leg, start the wrap at the paw and work your way up the leg. An adhesive bandage should NEVER be wrapped too tightly. This bandage material shrinks down and becomes tighter as it adheres to the leg or paw, which may constrict blood flow. 

MUZZLES

An injured pet is in pain and can be fearful. The animal could attempt to bite you in defense. Before you begin any first aid measures, muzzle your pet with a gauze bandage. A tie or belt can be used as well. Approach the pet slowly, speak softly, and use extreme caution!

 INSECT STINGS & BITES

Use tweezers to pull out any stinger if it is visible. Apply a paste of baking soda and water to swollen areas to help stop itching and burning. You may also use ice water, an instant cold pack, or an antiseptic wipe or ointment. Remember that ice should never be applied directly to the skin. Sting relieving pads are also available. 

TRAUMATIC SHOCK

Like humans, dogs can enter a state of shock after an accident. In this state the vital organs receive insufficient blood and oxygen. Symptoms include a racing pulse, listlessness, fast breathing, loss of consciousness, and below-normal temperature. Place your dog on its side in a comfortable position and cover it.

TAKE YOUR PET TO THE VET IMMEDIATELY!

BURNS

DO NOT APPLY ANYTHING TO A BURN EXCEPT COLD WATER

Burns are very serious. Never underestimate a burn. Wear gloves when treating a chemical burn. Wash the burn with cool water and apply a cool compress. Wrap the burn with a clean bandage.

DO NOT USE COTTON BATTING OR GAUZE BECAUSE IT WILL STICK TO THE WOUND

TAKE YOUR PET TO THE VETERINARIAN IMMEDIATELY!

MOUTH AND NOSE BLEEDING

Hold a cold compress or ice pack covered in a towel over the bleeding area. Ice should never be applied directly to the skin. Hold the head up. A minor nosebleed should stop within 5 minutes. Nosebleeds can be symptomatic of serious conditions. Notify your veterinarian immediately.

Hug the animal placing one hand over your clenched fist just below the rib cage. Give five sharp inward thrusts then check to see if the object has become dislodged or can be manually removed from the airway. Repeat the procedure if unsuccessful. DO NOT PERFORM CPR even if the animal suffers cardiac arrest. A viable airway must be achieved first. Call your veterinarian or an alternate emergency number immediately for further instruction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TICKS

It is possible for your pet or members of your family to contract diseases such as Lyme disease or ehrlichiosis as a result of tick bites. Ticks can transmit various disease-causing organisms so it isimportant to remove them immediately. To remove a tick isolate it by pulling back hair in the area. Do not use your fingers to remove a tick as this can increase the risk of infection. In most cases it is better to wait a short while until tweezers can be located. Use tweezers to grasp the tick as close to its head as possible and pull directly outward without twisting. Be sure to avoid squeezing the body of the tick as this is where disease-causing organisms canbe contained.Much inaccurate advice persists regarding the removal of ticks. While it has been suggested that 

matches, Vaseline, nail polish remover, or alcohol might be employed to facilitate removal, all of these methods can cause a tick to regurgitate its stomach contents, including harmful organisms, into the host’s skin.

Place the tick in a jar of alcohol to kill it or save it for testing. Cleanse the area with a disinfectant such as rubbing alcohol or hydrogen peroxide once the tick has been removed. Also be sure to wash your hands. You may consider using gloves.

It is possible that mouthparts will break off and remain lodged in the skin. This may result in an abscess or local infection. Be sure to consult your doctor or veterinarian regarding these issues or to address your concerns about other infectious diseases. 

SPEAK TO YOUR VET ABOUT FLEA AND TICK CONTROL

 

 

CHOKING

Choking dogs or cats sometimes gag, paw at their mouth, and drool. Other signs include a high head carriage, excessive salivation, and the loss of consciousness. Extreme caution should be used when attempting to dislodge foreign objects from choking animals as even a seemingly unconscious animal can bite.

If choking occurs, push the lower jaw open and pull the tongue out. Try to grasp the object with your fingers or tweezers. USE EXTREME CAUTION.

If you are unable to clear the airway you may attempt to perform the Heimlich maneuver. The following information is provided for informational purposes only. Consult a medical professional before attempting the Heimlich maneuver or CPR. Position the animal upside down with its back against your chest.